Listing files and folders well-arranged


Many people know the problem: You have to find something, but you’re having no idea where to find it. Of course, you can use “locate” or “find” and search for the file. But what’s the best possibility for getting an overview about directories, files, binaries or subdirectories?
YES – it’s using the “tree” command. But what are you going to do, if you’re working on a managed server without any root-access and without the possibility to install tree? 
Here’s a short solution for this problem:
ls -R | grep ":$" | sed -e 's/:$//' -e 's/[^-][^/]*//--/g' -e 's/^/   /' -e 's/-/|/'

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Mount a temporary ram partition

With this simple snippet you can mount a temporary ram partition: ( Be careful – please check if you’re having enough ramspace free )

mount -t tmpfs tmpfs /mnt -o size=128m

It’s also possible to write a similar command into /etc/fstab, so that the ram partition will be automatically mounted after a reboot.

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I want to introduce rkhunter – a very useful tool for protecting your server (Debian/Ubuntu).

apt-get install rkhunter


After that,  you should open the configfile with your preferred editor:

vi /etc/rkhunter.conf


Please change the emailadress to your emailadress:


Now you can do the first run:

rkhunter --check


For more informations about rkhunter please see:

rkhunter readme

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How to secure a Debian Server


I just want to show you some tools/methods for securing your Debian/Ubuntu-server.

Secure your SSH-login (please open /etc/ssh/sshd_config):

- forbid root-login

PermitRootLogin no

- only allow SSH-login with SSH-key (no password login)

PasswordAuthentication no

- change your SSH-port (for example Port 2020 instead of 22)

Port 2020

- if you have more than one IP-Adress which is accessible from everywhere, you should make your SSH-Daemon listen to only one IP-Adress


(replace with the IP-Adress you want your SSH-Daemon to listen to)

Install Updates regularly:

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Use fail2ban for prohibiting bruteforce-attacks:

- Simply install that tool via aptitude

Find rootkits with rkhunter: (rkhunter)

- You can install rkhunter via aptitude

If you did all these changes applying the SSH-settings and you installed fail2ban and rhunter you can say that your server is quite secure. Of course, this is no guarantee that your server won’t be hacked, but it makes it much harder.


Vor Kurzem habe ich ein geniales Tool gefunden, welches Code visualisieren kann. Das bedeutet, dass man auf einen Codeschnipsel eingeben kann, welcher dann als schickes Bildchen dargestellt wird.

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